Jan-Louis Kruger is Head of the Department of Linguistics at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia where he also teaches in AVT. His main research interests include studies on the processing of language in multimodal contexts in which his group investigates the cognitive processing of language in the context of multimodal texts where viewers have to engage with a number of (often redundant or competing) sources of information, using eye tracking, electroencephalography and psychometric instruments. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Audiovisual Translation (JAT).

His current research projects investigate cognitive load in the context of educational subtitling with a view to optimising subtitles as language support in second language environments, as well as the processing of subtitles as dynamic text. He is author of a number of peer-reviewed articles and book chapters ranging from audio description to cognitive translation studies to the translation of narrative fiction. He is also a founding member of the Asia-Pacific Translation and Cognition Research Group or APTRAC (

  • Articles
    • Kruger, J-L., Hefer, E., & Matthew, G. (2014). Attention distribution and cognitive load in a subtitled academic lecture: L1 vs. L2. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 7(5), 1-15. [4]. DOI: 10.16910/jemr.7.5.4
    • Kruger, J. L. (2010). Audio narration: Re-narrativising film. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 18(3), 231-249. DOI: 10.1080/0907676X.2010.485686
    • Orero, P., Doherty, S., Kruger, J-L., Matamala, A., Pedersen, J., Perego, E., … Szarkowska, A. (2018). Conducting experimental research in audiovisual translation (AVT): a position paper. Journal of specialised translation, (30), 105-126.
    • Kruger, J., Doherty, S., & Ibrahim, R. (2017). Electroencephalographic beta coherence as an objective measure of psychological immersion in film. Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione/International Journal of Translation, 2017(19), 99-111. DOI: 10.13137/2421-6763/17353
    • Kruger, H. C., & Kruger, J. L. (2005). Existing subtitler training programmes and challenges for South Africa as a developing country. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 23(3), 269-279.
    • Barnard, A., & Kruger, J-L. (2005). Hands as markers of fragmentation. Literator, 26(2), 17-37. DOI: 10.4102/lit.v26i2.226
    • Kruger, J. L. (2012). Ideology and subtitling: South African soap operas. Meta, 57(2), 496-509. DOI: 10.7202/1013958ar
    • Kruger, J. L. (2012). Making meaning in AVT: Eye tracking and viewer construction of narrative. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 20(1), 67-86. DOI: 10.1080/0907676X.2011.632688
    • Kruger, J. L., & Doherty, S. (2016). Measuring cognitive load in the presence of educational video: Towards a multimodal methodology. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(6), 19-31. DOI: 10.14742/ajet.3084
    • Kruger, J. L., Doherty, S., & Soto-Sanfiel, M. T. (2017). Original language subtitles: Their effects on the native and foreign viewer. Comunicar, 25(50), 23-32. DOI: 10.3916/C50-2017-02
    • Kruger, J. L. (2016). Psycholinguistics and audiovisual translation. Target, 28(2), 276-287. DOI: 10.1075/target.28.2.08kru
    • Wilken, N., & Kruger, J-L. (2016). Putting the audience in the picture: mise-en-shot and psychological immersion in audio described film. Across Languages and Cultures, 17(2), 251-270. DOI: 10.1556/084.2016.17.2.6
    • Kruger, J. L., & Steyn, F. (2014). Subtitles and eye tracking: reading and performance. Reading Research Quarterly, 49(1), 105-120. DOI: 10.1002/rrq.59
    • Kruger, J-L. (2013). Subtitles in the classroom: balancing the benefits of dual coding with the cost of increased cognitive load. Journal for language teaching = Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig, 47(1), 55-71. DOI: 10.4314/jlt.v47i1.2
    • Kruger, J-L., Szarkowska, A., & Krejtz, I. (2015). Subtitles on the moving image: an overview of eye tracking studies. Refractory : a journal of entertainment media, 25, 1-14.
    • Kruger, J-L., Kruger, H., & Verhoef, M. (2007). Subtitling and the promotion of multilingualism: the case of marginalised languages in South Africa. Linguistica Antverpiensia, 6, 35-49.
    • Kruger, J. L. (2009). The translation of narrative fiction: Impostulating the narrative origo. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 17(1), 15-32. DOI: 10.1080/09076760902940120
    • Kruger, J-L. (2004). Translating traces: deconstruction and the practice of translation. Literator, 25(1), 47-71. DOI: 10.4102/lit.v25i1.245
    • Kruger, H. C., & Kruger, J. L. (2004). User-based parameters for the training of subtitlers in South Africa. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 22(3-4), 111-124.
    • Kruger, J-L. (1995). William Carlos Williams’s cubism: the sensory dimension. Literator, 16(2), 195-213.
  • Chapters
    • Doherty, S., & Kruger, J. (2018). Assessing quality in human and machine-generated subtitles and captions. In J. Moorkens, S. Castilho, F. Gaspari, & S. Doherty (Eds.), Translation quality assessment: from principles to practice (pp. 179-197). (Machine translation: technologies and applications; Vol. 1). Cham: Springer Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-91241-7_9
    • Kruger, H., & Kruger, J-L. (2017). Cognition and reception. In J. W. Schwieter, & A. Ferreira (Eds.), The Handbook of Translation and Cognition (pp. 71-89). (Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9781119241485
    • Kruger, J., Doherty, S., Fox, W., & De Lissa, P. (2018). Multimodal measurement of cognitive load during subtitle processing: same-language subtitles for foreign-language viewers. In I. Lacruz , & R. Jääskeläinen (Eds.), Innovation and expansion in translation process research (pp. 267-294). (American Translators Association scholarly monograph series; Vol. XVIII). Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing. DOI: 10.1075/ata.18.12kru
    • Kruger, J-L. (2018). Psycholinguistics and audiovisual translation. In Y. Gambier, & S. Ramos Pinto (Eds.), Audiovisual translation: theoretical and methodological challenges (pp. 95-106). (Benjamins Current Topics; Vol. 95). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. DOI: 10.1075/bct.95.08kru
    • Kruger, J-L. (2008). Subtitler training as part of a general training programme in the language professions. In J. Diaz-Cintas (Ed.), The didactics of audiovisual translation (pp. 71-87). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing.
    • Doherty, S., & Kruger, J-L. (2018). The development of eye tracking in empirical research on subtitling and captioning. In T. Dwyer, C. Perkins, S. Redmond, & J. Sita (Eds.), Seeing into screens: eye tracking and the moving image (pp. 46-64). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    • Kruger, J-L., Soto-Sanfiel, M. T., Doherty, S., & Ibrahim, R. (2016). Towards a cognitive audiovisual translatology: subtitles and embodied cognition. In R. M. Martín (Ed.), Reembedding translation process research (pp. 171–193). (Benjamins translation library; No. 128). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/btl.128.09kru
    • Kruger, J., & Doherty, S. (2018). Triangulation of online and offline measures of processing and reception in AVT. In E. Di Giovanni, & Y. Gambier (Eds.), Reception studies and audiovisual translation (pp. 91-109). (Benjamins Translation Library (BTL); Vol. 141). London: John Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/btl.141.06kru
  • Conference proceeding contribution
    • Kruger, J. L., Hefer, E., & Matthew, G. (2013). Measuring the impact of subtitles on cognitive load: Eye tracking and dynamic audiovisual texts. In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Eye Tracking South Africa, ETSA 2013 (pp. 62-66). New York: ACM. DOI: 10.1145/2509315.2509331
    • Kruger, J-L. (2002). The focalisation of narratives of history in A. P. Brink’s Sandkastele: towards a translation. In I. Biermann, & A. Combrink (Eds.), Poetics, linguistics and history – Discourses of War and Conflict: Proceedings of PALA 19, Potchefstroom University, South Africa, March 1999 (pp. 557-567). South Africa: Potchefstroom University.

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